This illustration is based on H.P. Grice's definitions of meaning. He divided meaning into two categories: natural and nonnatural. According to Grice, nonnatural meaning depends on people's intentions in a way that natural meaning does not. (Image courtesy of OCW.)
This course is an introduction to the philosophy of language. It examines different views on the nature of meaning, truth and reference, with special focus on the problem of understanding how linguistic communication works.