Portrait of Martin Luther from Luther's On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church
, 1520. (Image courtesy of the Library of Congress
This subject surveys the main currents of European cultural and intellectual history in the modern period. Such a foundation course is central to the humanities in Europe (Geistesgeschichte, histoire des idées). The curriculum introduces a set of ideas and arguments that have played a formative role in European cultural history, and acquaints them with some exemplars of critical thought. With each text, special consideration will be devoted to the work's enduring influence over contemporary European culture.